- Explosive ordnance disposal
- Explosive ordnance demolition
- Underwater blasting
- Destruction of ice
- Special-purpose research blasting
- Transportation of explosive ordnance
Destruction of explosive ordnance
Destruction of explosive ordnance (EO) on the earth's surface meets The Uniform Safety Rules for Blasting Operations (PB 13-407-01), The Regulations on Procedure for Training and Testing of Personnel’s Knowledge for Blasting” (RD 13-416- 01), the IMAS International Mine Action Standards and other applicable documents.
EO destruction includes the following steps:
- Immediate departure of a disposal team by the car specially equipped and approved for transportation of hazardous cargo,
- Arrangements for liaising with local authorities, the Ministry of Internal Affairs, the Ministry of Emergency Situations, the media and medical institutions,
- EO identification,
- Rendering EO safe (when required),
- EO manual or crane loading,
- EO transportation to a firing ground along agreed routes,
- EO manual or crane unloading,
- EO destruction by demolition,
- Submission of reporting documents
Blasting for ice destruction are performed to make ice holes and passages, prevent ice blocks near bridges and for vessel escorting.
For an approximate assessment of an amount of explosives required for ice blasting, 0.075 kg of trotyl or ammonite is taken per square meter of the ice surface with the ice thick up to 0.5 m. The specified values of charges in all cases, where possible, are subject to specification by trial blasts.
To put charges down under the ice, in the ice, operators make openings (ice holes) of such a size that allows a free passage of main charges and that are made using ice shovels, crowbars, mechanical and electric drills, or small blasting charge explosions.
When holes are made by explosions, charges are placed on the ice surface cover or by deepening into the ice thickness.
Charges (main) are put down into ice holes on ropes or poles with crossbeams put on the ice across ice holes. To avoid charge rising to the surface, they are tied to bullets.
Ice holes are made with a simultaneous explosion of a group of charges.
Distances between charges are 5-6 times more than their immersion depth. Charges are arranged in parallel rows, brought under the ice and fixed in openings.
Ice destruction in case of ice hole making can also be achieved with elongated charges laid on the ice. If the snow cover is available, operators make trenches (pits) in the snow to lay charges on the ice.
With the ice thickness of up to 0.35 m, a filament of a distributed charge with the weight of 1 kg/m makes the ice hole 1.5-3.5 meters wide. To have a wider ice hole, filaments of distributed charges are placed parallel to each other at distances of 2-4 m.
In case of the ice surface covered with the snow, distances between filaments of the distributed charge are assumed equal to 2 m to reduce dimensions of ice floes in the ice hole.
Blasting of sheer ice massifs for the purpose of the ice breakup is achieved using concentrated charges placed into wells up to 2.0 m deep made in the ice.
Transportation of Explosive Ordnance
“ETC for Special Works” LLC owns motor vehicles and trained personnel able to transport explosive ordnance in accordance with the applicable requirements to a route, load capacity and technical condition of a vehicle, stowage of explosive ordnance in a vehicle body and containers, driving velocity, a number offorwarding employees, smoking rules, vehicle body protection and personnel protection equipment, parking places, loading and unloading. Separate requirements are applicable to vehicle color marking.